Standard Form of Language and What Dialects and Creoles Are

[thumb=left]http://essay-topics.co.uk/uploads/posts/2013-09/1379848179_man-writing1.jpg[/thumb
Introduction

Language is a complex system, which people use for communication and exchange of ideas. At the same time, different peoples and socio-cultural groups have different forms of language which may vary consistently. In this regard, it is possible to distinguish different languages, which differ from nation to nation or from ethnic group to ethnic group, but also it is possible to distinguish dialects and creoles as forms of the standard language, which is considered to be a norm of the form of language for a nation. As a result, language can be extremely diverse and it may have a variety of forms, even though formally the language may be one and the same for different socio-cultural groups, which use different dialects of one and the same language. At this point, it is possible to refer to the experience of an average classroom, which has a diverse socio-cultural background that mirrors through the language students use in their everyday life. In such a way, it is possible to distinguish different forms of language, including the standard language, like the standard American English, and dialects and creoles as forms of the standard language, such as Indian English or African American vernacular English, but all these forms of the language belong to one and the same language – English, which proves to be extremely diverse and rich language.

Standard form of language and dialects
The standard form of language is often difficult to define because views of specialists () on the standard language may differ consistently. In this regard, the definition of the standard American English is particularly difficult because American English consists of a large number of dialects, which differ consistently, to the extent that some specialists () believe that some dialects, like African American English are not dialects of American English but different languages which are not English at all. In such a context, the definition of the standard American English may be a serious challenge for researchers. Nevertheless, some specialists () point out that the standard American English is the commonly accepted usage of language in the US and by people living and originating from the US, which is characterized by the particular grammar, phonology, lexical and stylistic norms, which are commonly accepted and used as the standard norms for American English and which are normally used in literature as the basis for the standard language used in the US, i.e. the standard American English.

Basically, the standard language, such as the standard American English, is the language that is comprehensible for the native population of the country, which is the official language of the country and which is used by people in their formal communication and communication with each other in any part of the country. In such a way, the standard American English proves to be the universal means of communication used between people, who are of American origin. In such a way, the standard American English is the vehicle language used in the US, which meets the traditional norms and standards of using English language in the US.
At the same time, the American English is not a homogeneous system. In stark contrast, the American English is extremely diverse and has a variety of dialects and creoles. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that dialects are forms of the language which deviate from the standard form of the language and which incorporate local, regional specificities and peculiarities, which distinguish one dialect from another. Basically, dialects are attributed to certain location, region or, to put it more precisely, to certain ethnic group or socio-cultural group inhabiting certain territory. As the matter of fact, the deviation from the norm, from the standard language occurs when a group of people lives in isolation from the mainstream cultural group for a relatively long period of time. For instance, immigrants from Great Britain that colonized America, originally spoke the same language as the British did. However, in the course of time, they developed their own dialect which later evolved in the American English, which became different from the British English because Americans lived in a relative isolation from Britain and developed their own language. This is the mechanism of the formation of dialects.

In this regard, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that dialects are formed under the impact of the socio-cultural environment. In fact, the language is not a rigid system. In stark contrast, the language is a constantly changing system. As a result, the language may differ even in different cities or states because of their specific local cultural environment and development of local specific dialect of the language. As a result, the American English turns out to be extremely diverse due to the large number of different cultural groups inhabiting the US. This diversity can be traced even in the classroom, where students with different ethnic and cultural background speak different dialects of English, such as Indian English and African American vernacular English. The Indian English is the dialect of English which is used by a student of Indian origin and this dialect is the characteristic of the specific dialect of English spread in India and in Indian community. As for the African American vernacular English, this language is used by some African American students in the classroom and this dialect is normally attributed to the African American community.

Indian English and African American vernacular English, their specific features and standard American English
Basically, the Indian English and African American vernacular English differ consistently from the standard American English. In this respect, the difference is obvious in the pronunciation which is actually different in both Indian English and African American vernacular English. Both these dialects have specific pronunciation which is different from the standard American English. For instance, in the African American vernacular English th in such words as this is pronounced as [d]. As for Indian English they often pronounce the as [di:]. In such a way, their language is quite different from the standard American English. Moreover, in terms of grammar, the student speaking Indian English tends to use idioms from his native language translating it word by word but such translated idioms are not always comprehensible for native speakers using the standard American English or other dialects of American English. As for the African American vernacular English, the students speaking this dialect often tends to make errors in tense forms. For instance, while using the past recent, he can tell “she done work”, which is quite different from the standard “she has done work”.

Literature review

a. Standard American English

Many researchers studied the development and essence of the standard American English. In this regard, it is worth mentioning F. Coulmas (2005), who studied the development of the American English and standard American English. The researcher focused on the research of changes in the American English, the emergence of dialects and basic characteristics of the standard American English. J.L. Dillard (1992) focuses his study on the history of American English and its evolution in the course of time. The author studies the evolution of American English from the early colonization to the late 20th century. E. Finegan focuses on the study of peculiarities of American English and its varieties. The author analyzes the current development of American English and attempts to forecast its development in the future. At the same time, the book written by Finegan, E. & Rickford, J. R. represent an in-depth research of the development of American English and its changes in the course of time. Finally, R. Lippi-Green (1997) focuses on the emergence of different accents and dialects in American English.

b. Indian English and African American vernacular English

The study of Indian English is the primary concern of J.C. Wells (1982). Even though the study was conducted long time ago, it reveals basic characteristics of Indian English and helps to understand specificities and peculiarities of Indian English. As for J. Baugh (2000), the author researched the African American vernacular English focusing on specificities and origin of this dialect.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that the development of the language, like American English, is vulnerable to considerable changes because language evolves and changes in the course of time. As a result, many dialects of one and the same language emerge. Nevertheless, there is always the standard language which sets norms for all people speaking different dialects but using the standard language for the formal communication and communication between representatives of different socio-cultural groups.

References:

Baugh, J. (2000), Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic Pride and Racial Prejudice, New York: Oxford University Press.
Coulmas, F. (2005), Sociolinguistics: The Study of Speakers' Choices, Cambridge University Press.
Dillard, J.L (1992), A History of American English, New York: Longman.
Finegan, E. (2004). American English and its distinctiveness. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century (pp. 18–38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Finegan, E. & Rickford, J. R. (Eds.). (2004). Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lippi-Green, R. (1997). English with an accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. New York: Routedge.
Wells, J.C. (1982). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge University Press.

Standard Form of Language and What Dialects and Creoles Are 8.2 of 10 on the basis of 1315 Review.