Error Correction Hypothesis

Error Correction Hypothesis
Error correction is an integral part of the educational process. How to make it possible for the students not to have the feelings of worthlessness in their efforts and eventually to be able to get a good knowledge of vocabulary and grammar in a clear and logical exposition of his thoughts on foreign language?
It would seem that the students have enough time to think about the results and tasks and check what was written, however, the number of errors made in written work is often unpleasantly surprises both teachers and students. It is therefore necessary to use different methods for correcting errors that teach students to see their mistakes and not to repeat them in future.

1. Correction of all errors. It emphasizes all the mistakes, and gives the correct answer. Especially this method is often used with the students, beginners to learn a foreign language with a zero level so that they quickly memorize the correct option. Sometimes due to lack of proper linguistic experience it is very difficult to immediately identify the error, and therefore they can give another incorrect version instead of the correct. Some foreign colleagues believe that a large number of the bug fixes may have adverse psychological impact on students. Therefore, they recommend correcting errors and selectively focusing students only on the key mistakes.

2. Correction of errors by choice or by agreement with the students. For example, if students pass a certain section of the grammar (The Present Perfect Tense) or assigned a translation of the active vocabulary, corrected errors will be associated with these linguistic phenomena. However, if necessary the teacher can emphasize other errors, but not to impose them on the field and do not take them into account when assessing the work.

3. Select all the mistakes or errors on the choice without their fixes. Errors highlights, surveying or marked in the margin tick opposite the corresponding string. It is better to apply this method to the advanced students continue to flow, as they have sufficient knowledge of foreign language for an independent analysis of their errors.

4. Numbering errors and comments on a separate sheet of paper. The method of error correction may vary depending on whether what kind of written work students do. For example, if this essay, the summation of the text, presentation or essay errors can be numbered in the fields and then using the same numbers, detailed comment on each error on a separate sheet of paper and to attach it to the work of the student. The advantage of this method is that it looks more carefully and not immediately shocking to students with more number of patches.

5. Discussion of common mistakes. This can be done in the form of exercises in the classroom. Proposals of the typical mistakes may be submitted to the board or to the students who can receive them in the form of handout. Students find mistakes in sentences and fix them, explaining the rule. After each offer, you can specify number of errors made in the proposal. For example, I was to London yesterday and stay there during eight hours. This method develops the students a very useful skill - to see their mistakes when checking their written work.

6. Correction of errors by the students in pairs. After writing a small lexical and grammatical work can a teacher can ask students to share their notebooks and to correct errors in each other’s copybook. Then together they can discuss the results. This method is the same as the previous one, and allows students to discover and identify mistakes, learn from the mistakes of each other and to provide general errors typical for the whole group.

7. Correction of errors of the students with the help of the key. The teacher provides students with the key, with which they check their work and correct errors. But in some cases even in the presence of the key, students cannot understand what the error is. Such errors are self-explanatory. This method develops the students' attention and stimulates their various sources of knowledge (literature, media, speakers, etc.). To indicate the error, many teachers use some reduction in the margin of written work. Example:

GR = grammar
SP = spelling
T = tense
WO = word order
WW = wrong word
A = article
NP = new paragraph
? = Doesn't make sense, etc.

It is desirable that these signs become an example for all teachers of the department. Students should learn about the existence of this notation 1 course. It saves a lot of time, as students will not be permanently clarifying that it means something, or otherwise reduce the margin. Students should be continually encouraged to intensify process of learning and their improvement. After analysis of errors corrected by any of the following methods, you must first mark the sections, in which students have improved their results and then point to material, which should be finalized.

Considering the possible effects of error correction on the student's affective filter, there can occur different situations and feedbacks on the errors corrected. Everyone commits mistakes that should be corrected and consequently the learning should be obtained out of that, but the relation to them depends on the perception of the situation. Some learners put up the "wall" if his/her anxiety level is high. The lower the anxiety level, the lower is the filter.

There is a natural approach developed by Stephen Krashen, professor of linguistics at the University of Southern California and an expert in the field of second language acquisition. The main provisions of the approach outlined in the books painted "The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom" and "Principles and practice in learning a second language."

The theory of second language acquisition, developed by Krashen consists of 5 hypotheses. According to the first of them, the hypothesis of learning-learning (the acquisition learning hypothesis), adults take possession of non-native language as a result of two ways: assimilation (or assimilation system) and learning (or learning system). Assimilation is a subconscious process, it occurs during communication, and similar to both learn their first native language children. Education is the acquisition of knowledge about the grammatical rules of language and the ability to explain them.

The second hypothesis, the hypothesis of the natural order (the natural order hypothesis), suggests that grammar forms are assimilated (for example digested, but not studied) by students in a certain predictable "natural" order. In other words, some grammar forms are usually digested earlier than others. It is interesting to note that Krashen does not insist that learning grammar is precisely in that order. On the contrary, grammatical structures should be presented to students, depending on what structures are needed for this communicative activity.

The third hypothesis, the hypothesis of "editor" (or monitor) (the monitor hypothesis), argues that the conscious language learning has a limited function - the function of advisor, or editor. Any statement generated by the system of language acquisition, on which depends the ability to speak freely, can be edited with the "internal editor". The editor usually works properly only under certain conditions: the speaker must know the rules of grammar, and there should be enough time to concentrate on the grammatical structure of expression and to correct the error. Of course, these conditions are easier to observe in writing.

According to the fourth hypothesis, the hypothesis of an incoming flow of information (the input hypothesis), a person studying a foreign language or his native language, is gradually forming expertise: he seeks to understand the information available to him, a stream which contains language material, slightly exceeding the level of knowledge. Fifth - the hypothesis of emotional filter (the affective filter hypothesis), suggests that self-confidence, the presence of motivation, on the one hand, and discomfort (anxiety, confusion) - on the other have an impact on the mastery of foreign languages and the best results can be achieved in calm, relaxed atmosphere. The most important conclusion from the foregoing is this: if the mastery of any language through the perception of incoming information if this subconscious acquisition of language prevails over the conscious learning, while the main part of the course in language should be the flow of incoming information, perceiving that, students should concentrate on sense, and not on the grammatical form of utterances. This is the essence of the developed hypothesis by Krashen, as a natural approach to language learning. He had an opinion that "the best way of teaching a foreign language is one that gives students a comfortable environment they can understand and perceive really interesting information for them." With interest much better results are guaranteed to be achieved. From this it follows that every lesson should be conducted only in the target of studying the language, and teachers need to use different techniques to achieve understanding, for example, to simplify expressions or use of visual help, just as the parents do or those who take care when dealing with a small child. This constant stream of comprehensible speech material lays the foundation of speech, and also helps the student to develop a sense of grammatical correctness.

Consequently, the basic content of the lessons is such activities that will be aimed at the subconscious acquisition of language and what will be interesting and meaningful to students, they will be focused on the meaning of the utterance, and not necessarily on the same form.

During these activities, the teacher introduces students to new words and grammar fixes, provides them with the comprehensible input information and provides them with the opportunity to develop skills of oral communication. These skills are rapidly developing, when the students interact in groups or pairs. An additional advantage of these group sessions is that students, feeling as a part of a team, become less shy, and besides their "internal editor", they begin to interact with other students to help in correcting the errors. Moreover, when students work together, they create a clear incoming speech material for studying foreign languages and thus help each other to learn the language.

Krashen also notes that such group sessions are used not only in his approach to teaching language, but also in other approaches, and they are often awarded to students for a well done job in grammar exercises. In the natural approach Krashen describes such "collective" activities undertaken with students in the target language they are learning, the main content of the course, its essence. Of course, this natural approach to language acquisition is a place for conscious learning, including the grammar exercises, because such exercises are necessary for the development of "internal editor" ("monitor"). However, a conscious learning plays only a minor role, and it should not be the main content of the lesson.

Teachers should not only know when to treat errors but also how to do error correction. It important to ensure students that error correction is not unforgivable or shameful. As a fact, positive relation and feedback is necessary to decrease the tension and encourage the students. There should be no fear among students in committing mistakes and in the facts that teachers will get angry if students do something wrong. Students should understand the real importance if the error correction and of the new knowledge that is obtained with each test, challenge and new experience in learning. Communication and students' self correction with teachers' or peer's help is encouraged. Discussion of the mistakes, of the options and opinion is important. Active discussion and offers can be very useful. With all these supporting factors students will have the new opportunities in accomplishing their tasks and achieve better results. This approach will create friendlier atmosphere that will provide the better results in the learning of the students and their intention to learn more despite of errors. It is not obligatory to correct every error of the student, as it is more important to be able to teach the main principles of the language and the main errors should be depicted. All other errors it would be better to discuss with the whole class. Motivation and encouragement goes on a long way in the importance of learning and committing mistakes, as it is inevitable. "Good timing" and the "appropriate" correction strategies will help to achieve better results if teachers use them, along with the change in the errors correction to provide an improved learning process.

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