Two Projects Essay

Two Projects Essay
Outline
Introduction
The introduction part provides the basic information on the background of the development of the product, the essence of the product, its major characteristics and the background of the entire project. In this section, it is important to define clearly the background of the project because it is essential for the development of the project, propose changes to the original project and introduce them. The introductory section will prepare readers to the justification of the introduction of changes and development of the modified product. At the same time, the introduction should explain the basic differences between the developed product and the target product that should meet new requirements. The overall message of this part should be the justification of the changes and explanation of the reliability of the modified product.
Product analysis and definition of changes needed
This section focuses on the detailed analysis of the product. In fact, the major advantages and drawbacks of the product should be identified. In such a way, the audience will be able to understand strengths and weaknesses of the developed product. The advantages of the product emphasize the importance of its further development, whereas drawbacks imply that the changes should be introduced to make the product. In such a context, the adaptation of the product to new requirements would be logical and natural. In such a way, the company will show that it came prepared to improvements. On the other hand, the personnel of the company will not be dissatisfied with the work they have already accomplished to develop the product. This fact is very important because people working on the new product did their best to make this product reliable and effective, whereas the decision of the company to introduce changes in the developed product can offend professionals working on this product because they can perceive as a manifestation of the distrust to their professionalism and qualification. Instead, the justification of the necessity of changes will smooth the relationships between the management and professionals working on the development of the product because they will understand that the product is really imperfect and that it does not meet new regulations established by the government. As a result, the changes to be introduced will look like natural and essential and professionals working on the product will readily start working on it.
Introduction of changes
This section focuses on the development and introduction of changes in the product. Basically, the development of the new, modified product should start with the definition of the changes to be introduced. On identifying the changes, the company should test the product to define whether it meets requirements established by the government or probably more changes are needed. When the changes are approved they are introduced in the product and the product is ready for manufacturing. This section should pay a particular attention to the analysis and justification of each changes which is going to be introduced in the product. In such a way, the company will show its capability to introduce changes in the product and to make the modified product better and safe.
Manufacturing of the product
This section focuses on the next stage of the development of the product and its introduction in the market. In fact, when the company introduces all the changes the product needs respectively to requirements of the government, the company has to test the product after which the mass production of the product can start on the condition that testing of the product is successful. In fact, this section should focus on the detailed description of the manufacturing of the product to eliminate the risk of errors and malfunctions in the course of the production of the product. The manufacturing process may be very complicated and the company should assess possible challenges, risks and threats which may arise as well as the ways of their elimination to maintain the manufacturing process and keep it stable.
Promotion of the product
The promotion of the product is essential before the introduction of the product in the market. Therefore, this section should contain the program of the promotional campaign of the company, including media used for the promotion, the target customer group, means of promotion and strategy used in the promotional campaign. In other words this section should contain detailed information on the promotion of the product with the justification of the chose strategy and means to prove that they are really efficient and can bring success to the new product.
Product distribution
This section focuses on the development of the distribution network for the new product. Basically, this section is extremely important because the company needs to deliver the product to the target customer group. In this section, the company should assess the existing network of distribution and define whether it is sufficient for the distribution of the new product or probably some changes have to be introduced in the distribution. For instance, the company may consider the use of new distributors and other options of distribution. Anyway, the company should define and justify the use of the distribution network for the new product.
Sales and marketing
This section should provide readers with detailed information on sales and marketing strategy conducted by the company. To put it more precisely, this section should contain information on the pricing strategy for the new product and its justification, the marketing strategy the company is going to apply and methods used by the company to market the product successfully.
Conclusion
The final section sums up the information concerning the development and introduction of the modified product. This section should provide readers with the clear conclusion concerning prospects of the new product and the ability of the company to introduce the product successfully. In such a way, the company can reach its target audience and prove the reliability of its product.





The Impact of Organizational Structures, Cultures and Management on the Project Management Process
Introduction
In actuality, the functioning of organizations depends consistently on the effectiveness of their organizational structure, culture and management. In such a context, the development of the project management process turns out to be dependent on organizational structures, culture and management as well. In this respect, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that, in the contemporary business environment, organizational structures, cultures and management styles can vary consistently. The process of globalization contributes to the growing diversity of the organizational culture because companies have to operate in multicultural environment that leads to the close interaction of employees with different cultures. Hence, the management style should take into consideration peculiarities of the organizational structure and culture to make the project management process effective and successful.
Functional organizational structure
On analyzing the variety of organizational structures existing in the contemporary business environment, it is possible to single out the functional organizational structure. The functional organizational structure implies that people working in such organizations are divided into teams which perform similar functions and tasks. In such a way, they have similar functions and work for the common organizational goal. In actuality, the team work is considered to be very effective because it contributes to the close interaction and cooperation between people. In addition, each team member has his or her own specific functions which each team member should perform properly. Due to the division of functions between team members, it is possible to maximize the effectiveness of the team performance and, therefore, to improve the overall organizational performance.
Furthermore, the functional organizational structure is oriented on the performance of homogeneous tasks and functions by teams. However, such an approach to the fulfillment of functions and tasks makes organizations and the project management process quite rigid because teams cannot go beyond the traditional set of their functions, while there are no other teams within the organization that can offer an alternative approach to the solution of problems of the organization or the project management process. In this regard, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that the organizational structure is based on team work but all teams work is oriented on the fulfillment of similar functions that prevent them from flexibility typical for organizations where teams perform different functions.
Projectized organizational structure
Projectized organizational structure is another form of the organizational structure. In fact, the projectized organizational structure implies that a team work within an organization works on a specific project and the work of the team is coordinated and guided by the team manager or leader. Basically, this approach to the organizational structure seems to be more effective in terms of the development of the effective project management process because, unlike the functional organizational structure, the projectized organizational structure provide the organization with essential flexibility because each team can work on a specific project. As a result, the organization can work on diverse projects and develop its business successfully because they have ample opportunities to choose a variety of projects.
Nevertheless, the projectized organizational structure is still imperfect because it increases the responsibility of each team for the fulfillment of its project. Therefore, if a team fails there is no other team in the organization that could back up the failed team. As a result, the risk of the failure of projects increases, if the professional level of team members or team work effectiveness drops.
Matrix organizational structure
In this regard, the matrix organizational structure seems to be the most efficient because it represents a blend of the functional organizational structure and the projectized organizational structure. This means that teams working on projects are subordinated to a functional manager and a project manager. As a result, the work team can be coordinated and both manager can cooperate closely to elaborate the most effective approaches to the management of organizations and their successful performance. In fact, the use of the matrix organizational structure increases the effectiveness of the team work and contributes to the effective solution of problems which may arise in the project management process.
At the same time, it is worth mentioning the fact that the use of the matrix organizational structure still has some risks. For instance, the use of the matrix organizational structure increases the risk of the conflict between a project manager and a functional manager. In this regard, the issue of leadership can be crucial because of the two manager are competing for the leadership they are likely to arrive to the point when the conflict outbursts. As a result, the team work on a project as well as the project management process at large may be under a threat of the failure.
Organizational culture
In actuality, along with the organizational structure, the organizational culture plays an important. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that the process of globalization contributes to the expansion of the international cooperation between companies and emergence of multinational corporations. At the same time, the close interaction between different culture led to the formation of the multicultural environment in which contemporary business has to operate. In such a situation, modern organizations have to develop their own organizational culture which is effective and meets the specific cultural background of employees working in the organizations. The development of the healthy organizational culture is of the utmost importance for the successful project management process. First of all, the healthy organizational culture eliminates or minimizes the risk of conflicts within the organization because positive interpersonal relationships contribute to the mutual understanding and, thus, prevention of conflicts within organizations. In addition, the healthy organizational structure contributes to the improvement of performance of each employee and individual involved in the project management process because they feel satisfied with their job being in a positive workplace environment that exists in the healthy organizational culture. Finally, the healthy organizational culture contributes to the improvement of the organizational performance and stimulates close cooperation between all people working within an organization.

The role of management

Along with the organizational structure and organizational culture, management still plays an important part because it contributes to the proper organization of work of employees within an organization and effective work on projects. Basically, managers coordinate and guide the work of employees and team members working on projects. The extent to which the management style is effective defines the overall effectiveness of team work and organizational performance. In actuality, there are diverse management styles and approaches to management which can help managers to be effective and lead their teams and organizations.
In this respect, it is possible to single out the total quality management which is one of the most efficient approaches to the project management process. The total quality management implies the focus on the quality as the major criterion of the work of a team and relationships within a team. It proves beyond a doubt that the total quality management helps to organize the work of a team and the project management process in such a way that the manager can maximize the effectiveness and contribution of each team member in the project development.

Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that the contemporary project management process depends on a variety of factors, including the organizational culture, organizational structure and management. Among the variety of organizational structures, the matrix organizational structure proves to be the most efficient but it has to be backed up with the healthy organizational culture and effective total quality management. In such a way, organizations can reach tremendous success in their project management process.

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