Application

Application
Introduction

Policy-making is a complex process, which needs a lot of efforts from the part of policy-makers as well as other people working within an organization, where policies are developed and implemented. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that the effective policy-making depends on several factors, among which it is possible to single out theorizing policies, their development and implementation. In actuality, policy makers prefer to prepare policies carefully before their implementation for the implementation of unprepared policies may provoke conflicts and opposition to decisions taken by policy makers. In such a situation, the elaboration of policies becomes a challengeable process, in which policy makers should cooperate closely with all stakeholders to meet their needs, wants and expectations and, thus, to minimize the risk of policies’ failure.

Theorizing policies

On developing new policies, policy makers should start with laying the theoretical foundation to the policy they are about to develop and implement. What is meant here is the fact that any policy needs to have a theoretical foundation, which justifies its development and implementation and proves that this policy is effective, at least in theory, whereas the further implementation of the chosen policy in practice will reveal whether this policy is as effective in practice as it is in theory (Benfari, 1999). On the other hand, while theorizing policies, it is important to remember about the policy cycle, which normally includes several stages, such as setting the problem, policy formulation, adoption, and evaluation. In fact, practically all theories include this policy cycle and policy makers cannot ignore the policy cycle while developing the theoretical foundation to their policies.

Furthermore, the development of the theoretical framework helps policy makers to take into consideration possible drawbacks of the policy they are going to develop and implement because theorizing implies the detailed analysis of policies, the assessment and evaluation of their strengths and weaknesses along with their outcomes (Benfari, 1999). In such a way, theorizing policies policy makers conduct the detailed analysis of policies. On the ground of the analysis of different policies, policy makers can make the optimal, best choice of the policy, which has the solid theoretical foundation and which seems to be the best, at least in theory. In fact, such a choice is likely to be successful on the condition of the adequate practical implementation of the policy.

Anyway, theorizing is an essential part of policy-making process. Policy makers cannot make decisions and choose policy spontaneously without considering effects of their decisions and policies they implement. In fact, such policies and decisions are unwise and policy makers, who take decisions and choose policies on the ground of their emotions or without careful considerations face risks of policies’ failure. Therefore, theorizing policies should include the analysis of policies, the careful study of reasons and methods of implementation of policies along with resources needed for the implementation of policies and critical analysis of outcomes of policies policy makers choose.

Development of policies

Nevertheless, theorizing policies is useless, if there is no policies’ development and further implementation. In this respect, the development of policies is the crucial stage in the policy-making process. In fact, the development of policies is closely intertwined with theorizing policies. To put it more precisely, the development of policies should be grounded on the theoretical framework. Policy makers analyze the situation in which they have to take decisions and develop policies. Using the theoretical analysis, they elaborate policies and prepare them to the further implementation.

At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that the development of policies implies the elaboration of the action plan. The development of the action plan starts with the definition of the problem, which a policy is supposed to tackle. On defining the problem to tackle, policy makers should define clearly the goals the policy should meet in order to solve the problem. The definition of the goal is an important step in the development of the action plan to implement policies because it defines the further development and implementation of the plan, its methods, strategies and implementation.

The next step in the development of the policy’s action plan is the choice of methods and strategy, which policy makers are going to use to reach goals of the plan and to solve the problem. In other words, depending on the goals and problems and the current environment, policy makers choose the most efficient methods and strategies that can allow the policy to reach its goals and to solve the problem. In this regard, the choice of methods and strategies depends on the theoretical framework of the policy as well. What is meant here is the fact that the theoretical framework implies that the policy should use certain methods and strategies to be successful (Breneman & Taylor, 1996). The theoretical analysis of a policy leads to the definition of strengths and possible weaknesses of the policy, which have to be taken into consideration by policy makers while choosing the methods and strategies for the implementation of the policy.

In addition, the methods and strategies used by policy makers should be selected on the ground of the objective analysis of the current situation, in which they have to be implemented, because the current situation may differ from the theoretical prognosis and, therefore, methods and strategies suggested at the stage of policy theorizing may be not applicable in the actual environment (Blanchard & Bowles, 1993). In this regard, the intuition and experience of policy makers may be crucial. For instance, policy makers in a new company can focus on the use of innovations, if the business environment is favorable for the development and introduction of innovations, even though, in theory, innovations are not effective for the business development of the particular company.

Furthermore, in the course of the development of policies, policy makers should pay a particular attention to the definition of resources to implement the policy. In fact, it is impossible to implement even the most successful policy without resources, which have to be defined clearly at the stage of the policy’s development. While developing a policy, policy makers should take into consideration goals and means to reach the goals. On the ground of this analysis, they can define how much and what resources they need and where they can take the resources from.

Finally, in the course of the development of a policy and the action plan, policy makers should focus on the elaboration of a system of control over the implementation of the policy (Yuan and Shaw 1995). In fact, even the perfect action plan can fail, if policy makers do not control the implementation of the policy. To control the implementation of the policy effectively, policy makers should define the system of control at the stage of the development of policy. Using the system of control, they can assess the implementation of the policy and introduce changes in the original plan, if necessary.

Implementation of policies

The implementation of policies is extremely important. Policy makers should follow the action plan created at the stage of the development of policy. They should focus on the goals of the policy and use methods and strategies defined and resources available to implement the policy. Using the defined control system they can assess the extent to which the policy is effective and introduce changes if the policy tends to fail.

Conclusion

Thus, in conclusion, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that policy-making process includes theorizing policy, policy development and implementation. All these steps are extremely important and interdependent. Therefore, policy makers should take them into consideration to conduct successful and effective policies.

References:

Benfari, R. C. (1999). Understanding and changing your management style. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Blanchard, K. & Bowles, S. (1993). Raving fans: A revolutionary approach to customer service. New York: Morrow.
Breneman, D. W., & Taylor, A. L. (eds.). (1996). Strategies for promoting excellence in a time of scarce resources. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Yuan, Y. and M.J. Shaw. (1995). “Induction of fuzzy decision trees.” Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 69, pp. 125–139.

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