Discrimination on healthcare

Discrimination on healthcare
While modern Americans on average have better health and longer life than any of the previous generations, there are still many problems to be solved in the sphere of the health care in United States. While that modern technology can offer an artificial heart or kidney transplants limited number of people and a lot of money, others continue to suffer from these already "conquered" medical diseases such as tuberculosis. As a fact, the disputes about the health care system in the United States have been going for a long time, about 70 years. The proper and satisfactory health care and health insurance in the United States is one of the most important issues to be changed and discussed thoroughly. President Truman was the first among the presidents, who proposed a system of public health insurance in 1945.

Older Americans are quickly becoming one of the largest populations, and a large number of elderly and sick people living in nursing homes. Many suffer from Alzheimer's disease, brain dysfunction, in which a person loses focus and hard to receive health care. Others, who in previous years would have long died from strokes or other diseases, continue to live, but suffer from speech problems and memory, paralysis and other disorders. As the awareness of Americans, they now meet the special needs of health for the elderly people; more doctors began to attract the attention of gerontology - the study of aging. There have been concentrated the efforts in medical research in this area, which has particularly facilitated the establishment of the Federal Government of the National Institute on Ageing.

It was disturbing and the infant mortality rate in the country. Still, the number of infant deaths under one year per thousand births in the United States remains higher than in many other industrialized countries. The numbers of it are higher among black Americans and other minorities than among white Americans. Health officials believe that improving nutrition and prenatal care can significantly reduce infant mortality among these groups.

In the world there are 4 main models of health service delivery. In three of them basic medical care is paid or the state - from taxes, or profit or insurance companies. All three models cover the polls the entire population of those countries in which they were taken.

The fourth model, which exists in the Third World, is called “Model pay out of pocket”. Its principle - or pay, or do not cure it. So, in America there are all these models together. And it is this system, which now wants to reform Obama. However, he is not the only one who tried to change it.

It is important to have a health care system in order to provide the best service and care for the United States citizens and to ensure the proper care from the government for people. U.S. health care system is represented by independent agencies on three main levels, a family medicine, hospital care and public health. Medical services in the U.S. are private individuals and legal entities. Various commercial, charitable and government organizations offer patients both outpatient and inpatient services, as mentioned in Centers for Medicare services. Health care needs many modifications, updates and changes, and it will be a real challenge to have success in that. Obviously, the change is needed and the Unites States sooner or later will set new rules and regulations for the comfort and availability of the citizens of the country.

Health care in the United States - is one of the largest branches of the U.S. economy, in which vast resources are concentrated. Medical industry accounts for one seventh of the entire national economy, employing over 10 million people. Activities of States in the health sector have a multifaceted impact on American society. Politics affect health care in the vital interests of virtually all sectors, groups and classes of society, as it is in the heart of political life. Private medical insurance system exists under the state law, which determines the incentives and the direction of its development, provides state control. State tax policy has largely stimulated the formation of private health insurance system.

About 47% of all U.S. health care costs are the costs of hospital treatment, about 2% - home care, 10% - medication and 10% - on the content in nursing homes. The remaining 11% services include dentists, ophthalmologists and other narrow specialists, as stated in National Center for Health Statistics. Family medicine is a fairly well-developed structure in the United States. Family physicians examine and observe patients, and if necessary they refer them to narrow specialists or into a hospital. Payment of these doctors is received from patients. Typically, a family doctor has his own office, or cooperates with other professionals.

Hospitals are the largest component of the health care. Inpatient care is also the most expensive and the most important component in the sphere of the health care of this country. Recently, however, a noticeable shift in the direction of other institutions has been made, mostly in clinics, the emergency room and nursing homes. Outpatient services are slowly but surely replace inpatient treatment and care at home - stay in homes for the elderly.

In the United States operate two types of hospitals: having the right to property, often controlled by large private corporations, and non-profit hospitals that are managed by county and state authorities, religious communities or independent civil society organizations. The hospitals have a certain amount of outpatient care in the emergency ward care and specialized clinics, but mostly they are intended to provide hospital care. Most attention is paid to emergency department care. In offices, ambulance and emergency treatment centers have a sporadic, focused on the assistance itself. Surgical Center is an example of a specialized clinic, and, as well, in the United States there is highly a developed network of hospices for terminal patients with a life expectancy of six months or less, which are usually subsidized by charities and government.

In the U.S., however, as in other countries, the concept of ambulatory care includes the provision of medical services without the patient's hospitalization, which accounts for a large share of medical assistance to the population. Treatment at home is mainly produced by nursing organizations and is usually ordered by physicians. There is the private sector outpatient care before personal physician (a specialist in internal and family medicine, pediatrics), specialists, such as gastroenterology, cardiology, pediatric endocrinologists, as well as nurses and other medical personnel. In 1996 have appeared the so-called services of concierge medicine - providing an expanded range of services to the personal physician for prepayment. Better health care for poor and disadvantaged - the only way to improve the health of the nation. Recent studies have shown that many diseases are due to elect people’s lifestyle. Money spent to persuade people to lose weight, exercise regularly, eat more rationally and stop smoking, often do more good than the cost of the most modern medical equipment. For example, studies have shown a significant reduction in lung cancer due to reduced smoking in the country, as described in the World Health Organization.

Although the United States healthcare system is the most expensive in the world, it is not without drawbacks. Many people in the U.S. cannot get adequate medical care, the incidence in the country is not reduced, and preventive measures often do not bring the expected result. However, the United States have taken steps aimed at improving health systems and health in general. Given the close relationship of funding and provision of health services, namely, new funding mechanisms lead to changes in the delivery of health services and are also a critical factor towards improving the health of the nation.

Health care is currently under heated debate around the affordability, efficiency and quality of medical services. The most urgent topic for discussion by American political parties, the question remains whether the introduction of universal compulsory in the U.S. public health system. Proponents of a universal system argue that the provision of medical care to uninsured citizens leads to huge costs, which can be avoided by covering the entire population of a system of compulsory care. Their opponents have appealed to the freedom of choice of everyone, including health care, arguing that the introduction of such a system would increase taxes and reduce the quality of care. However, opponents agree that today the government is compelled to spend huge sums on health and that the most effective solution to this problem would be to promote market-based solutions, increasing efficiency and introducing innovative approaches. In addition, all political forces intend to unanimously uphold the inalienable right of everyone to medical care, which should be protected by the state.

In the United States, a country with an established market-driven health care there are, on the one hand, the conventional sectors of the capitalist economy with all the characteristics peculiar to this method of management, on the other - there is a particular socially-oriented area of the modern economy. This feature means that the mechanisms of market relations are built as strong elements of state regulation of stimulating and guiding the development of the social sectors. Here there is a tendency to expand and to strengthen the distribution functions of the state.

The most important feature of health care in the United States is the legal protections of the patient. The system of legislation, which provides mechanisms for the protection of his rights, led to the creation of conditions under which the arbitrariness with respect to human health from both health providers and the state is almost eliminated. This mechanism is organically integrated into the system paradigm of a democratic society.

However, in healthcare, as perhaps in no other socio-political sphere, there are quite acute problems, which cause a relative fragility and instability in the country. One of the major causes of social inadequacy of American medical care (the lack of universal access to health care, etc.) lies in the presence of many sources of payment for medical services, which create confusion and overlap. Of course, in other Western countries, medical services also pay for "third party" (mainly the government), but these countries do not claim to market nature of this sphere. Most civilized countries have a universal ("global") budget for health and well-coordinated system of health care, financed through a single payer. In the U.S. there is no "global" budget and there is insufficient coordination among the parts of the system. Instead, there is a chaotic system of payers - insurers and manufacturers of medical services, which operate independently of each other and usually aim for different goals that, in general, contribute to the cost of medical services and as a result of their inaccessibility. It should be emphasized that the U.S. Congress - the supreme legislative body - has a very heavy role in deciding the fate of health care in the country. There are plenty of facts and proofs that United States discriminate people who are poor and as a result they do not get proper health care as wealthier people. Health care policy should be changed and the special attention should be devoted to the facts of discrimination, inequality and extremely high prices in a health care sphere.

In recent decades, Americans increasingly viewed their health as something to which they have an inalienable right. The belief in a right to health is based on the greatest achievements in medicine have made it possible to cure the previously incurable diseases, as well as broader than in the past, the interpretation of the constitutional duties of the U.S. government to promote the common welfare. The increased expectations of health care in the United States are the result of expanding the frontiers of knowledge of medicine and the belief that in prosperous democratic society, everyone must be available and assistance of trained doctors, and superbly-equipped hospitals, and the most advanced treatment methods. The rapid progress of medical science justify many of these expectations and at the same time, each new discovery and improvement in medical practice poses new problems to be solved and new questions to be answered.

Works cited

Centers for Medicare services (2010). National Health Expenditures. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from http://www.cms.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/01_Overview.asp
National Center for Health Statistics (2010). Ambulatory Health Care Data. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ahcd.htm
World Health Organization (2010). United States of America. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from http://www.who.int/countries/usa/en/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010). General Information. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from http://www.hhs.gov/about/

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