Module 2 Case Study Quantitative Reasoning. Smoking.

Module 2 Case Study Quantitative Reasoning. Smoking.
Smoking, unfortunately, is the most common of the bad habits among pregnant women. Despite the harm of smoking to health, the percentage of female smokers has recently significantly increased. More increased rates are of smoking among teenage girls and the percentage of smokers than boys. While smoking harms the health of the mother and the unborn child's health, only 20% of women refuse to quit smoking during pregnancy. The research question will cover the disadvantages of women who smoke during pregnancy and the consequences that occur in the future.

The most visible result of smoking during pregnancy is the development of fetal hypotrophy (reduced size and weight of the fetus). This is due to the fact that when smoking various violations occurs in the placenta and the fetus receives less oxygen and nutrients. The more smoke is inhaled by mother (even if she does not smoke, but is often found in smoke-filled room - a passive smoker), the higher the degree of malnutrition in the child. Therefore, pregnant women should avoid heavily smoke-filled places. Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm birth, premature detachment of the placenta, according to Chris Woolston (2009). The testable hypothesis related to the current health issue, it can be said that smoking must be prohibited to the pregnant women, as there have been done many research considering this topic and it has been found that the majority of harm from the smoking pregnant woman goes to the health of the child, according to American Pregnancy Association (2010.

Maternal smoking may increase the risk of sudden infant death. Moreover, children of smoking mothers have small but visible deviations in the physical and intellectual development. Typically, they are stunted, often ill, worse in school. This is due to the fact that during fetal development they had anoxia (nicotine stimulates the release of substances, compressing blood vessels of placenta), according to Baby Centre (2010).

Children of women, who smoked during pregnancy, often suffer from obesity in adolescence. Employees of the British University of Nottingham and four Canadian universities studied more than 500 teenagers aged 12-18, the mother half of them smoked during pregnancy. As it turned out the impact of cigarette smoke on the child in the womb leads to the fact that at birth his weight in arrears of 300 grams up to standards. Scientists believe that pregnant women who smoke play an important role in programming of obesity. Although the exact reason and mechanism of the phenomenon is still unclear, researchers know that the nicotine in tobacco smoke comes into contact with the child accumulates in excess amounts, and remains there for a longer time than in the mother's body.
According to American Pregnancy Association (2010), problems connected with the maternal smoking during pregnancy and the further problems with infant health are:

- First of all, themselves smokers are reduced of reproductive capacity.
- Difficulties arise with the birth of a boy.
- A child born to smoking parents, already doomed to a variety of problems in the reproductive system.
- A woman who smokes during pregnancy, has a child born dependent on nicotine.
- Sometimes smoking directly affects placenta, which leads to miscarriage or intrauterine fetal death.
- Smoking mothers often give birth to premature babies, and those who were born in time, often significantly reduced weight (malnutrition).
- Very often, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, at birth have breached lung function.
- Children of smoking mother have twice the risk of becoming a victim of sudden infant death syndrome, than children of nonsmokers.
- Children of women, who smoked 15-20 cigarettes a day (even during pregnancy they refrained from smoking), get sick more often.
- Any of the above points is a considerable reason to quit smoking.

References

American Pregnancy Association (2010). Smoking and your Baby: Need Help Putting Down That Cigarette.

Baby Centre (2010). Is it safe to smoke during pregnancy.

Chris Woolston (2009). How smoking during pregnancy affects you and your baby.

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