American History

American History
The First Party System is a term that is used by historians and scientists describing the political party system of the United States that existed in 1792 - 1824. That time American politics was controlled by two parties: the Federalist Party (headed by Alexander Hamilton) and the Democratic-Republican Party (headed by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson).
The Federalist Party consisted of people living in urban areas, and whose main aim was to increase the potency of the national government. That time the Federalists dominated in the government until the election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800. In 1812, when the War hit the Americans, the Federalists supported the idea of not fighting with Britain. At the time, when the War of 1812 had, the Federalists were much weakened.

The Republican presidents had the policy that emphasized state’s rights and supported the strict interpretation of the Constitution. They also gave the preference to agricultural and rural life and that is why strength in South and West of the country had. The Republicans favored close ties with France and at the same time stresses civil liberties and trust in American people.

During the Presidency of James Monroe, that is called “The Era of Good Feelings”, the First Party System came to an end; it was the end of the Federalist Party, which was divided into two parts.

In 1824-28 the Second Party System appeared because of the dividing of the Democratic-Republican Party into the Jacksonian faction that became known as the modern Democratic Party, and the Henry Clay faction that was headed by Clay's Whig Party.

The Whig Party consists of wealthy elites who were sure that the Congress should have more power then the Executive Branch. At the same time, the Democrats were against the National Bank of America and tried to represent the lower class Americans. Jacksonian Democrats could to destruct the National Bank of America. They felt that the bank was providing unfair economic advantages. The Whigs could lead the Executive Branch after the election of President William Harrison who died right after obtaining the position and had to be replaced by another representative of Whig Party, Vice President John Tyler. Not long after that the Whig Party lost the power after the election of 1844 and John Tyler refused to accept any proposals of Wigs, he was forced out of the Party and it crumbled. It was the end of the two party systems (1790-1854), but it was not the end of the two party systems in America`s future.

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