The Life and Presidency of Bill Clinton

The Life and Presidency of Bill Clinton
Outline

Introduction

1. Early Years of Future President
2. School and University Years of Bill Clinton
3. Political Career
3.1. Clinton Governance of Arkansas
3.2. Presidential Campaign 1992
3.3. First Term of Presidency: Faults and Achievements
3.4. Second Term: Lewinski Scandal and Possibility of Impeachment
3.5. The Results of Clinton’s Presidency

Conclusion: Post-Presidential Work

References

Introduction

William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton was born in 1946 at Hope, Arkansas. He could be undoubtedly called one of the most outstanding American Presidents and his life and governance are really interesting life and success story of this outstanding figure. Personally I consider that Bill Clinton’s social and political work provided a significant contribution to the of social and economical development and to the country as a whole.

1. Early Years of Future President

Bill Clinton was born in 19th of August 1946 and got the name William Jefferson Blythe III. His father William Jefferson Blythe Jr. (1918—1946) worked as travelling salesman and mother Virginia Dell Cassidy (1923–1994) after the school graduation moved to study nursing at Louisiana. There she got acquainted to Bill’s father. In 1843 they got married and after that father of William Blythe was recruited to United States Army and sent to Egypt. After the WWII William and Virginia shortly dwelled in Chicago and planned to buy a house at Hope, not far from her parents. But on May 17th 1946 William died in the car accident on his way from Chicago to Hope. After giving birth to a child, Bill’s mother returned to New Orleans to continue her education and first years of his life future President of the United States spent with his grandparents: Eldridge and Edith Cassidy. They had a small private business: grocery store and despite the segregation, typical for that period, they sold the goods to people of all races. In his autobiography (2004) Bill Clinton noted that his grandparents were the ones who taught him such important things that guided him all his life, – tolerance, equality, political correctness and respect. Young Bill learned these concepts from his yearly years and this significantly impacted his future life and career (Clinton Bill, 2004, p. 17). When Bill was four, his mother married car dealer Roger Clinton and in 1953 the family moved to Hot Springs, located in Arkansas. In 1956 Bill’s brother, Roger, was born. Despite the fact that at the age of 15 Bill took the last name of his step father, he described him in autobiography as gambler and alcoholic. Clinton mentioned that he often abused his mother and sometimes Bill protected his younger brother from his step father’s abusive treatment (Clinton Bill, 2004, p. 214).

2. School and University Years of Bill Clinton

Speaking about the school years, it should be noted that Bill Clinton was one of the best students at school and the leader of the jazz band where he played a saxophone. It would be essential to focus on the fact that even at such a young agel Clinton was socially and politically active young man: as a member of the national youth organization, he took part in the meeting with John Kennedy in 1963. He noted in his autobiography that he decided to devote himself to public service: “Sometime in my sixteenth year, I decided I wanted to be in public life as an elected official. I loved music and thought I could be very good, but I knew I would never be John Coltrane or Stan Getz. I was interested in medicine and thought I could be a fine doctor, but I knew I would never be Michael DeBakey. But I knew I could be great in public service” (Clinton Bill, 2004 p. 311).

After school graduation Clinton with the help of scholarships, studied at three high educational establishments: Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., graduating with a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service; then he won Rhodes Scholarship to University College, Oxford, where he studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics but with assistance of the switching program Bill Clinton Moved to Yale Law School, where he achieved a doctor. Clinton’s family could be regarded to as middle class and his step father up to that period was severely suffering from alcoholism, hence Bill perfectly dealt with the studies himself. He got higher scholarship and worked on the three works at the same time. At the Yale University, which he finished in 1973, he got acquainted with Hilary Rodham, whom she married on October 11, 1975.

3. Political Career

3.1. Clinton Governance of Arkansas

After graduating the University Bill Clinton became a professor in University of Arkansas. In 1974, aged 28 Bill Clinton ran for the Congress, the House of Representatives, from Arkansas, but was defeated. In 1976 he was elected as Arkansas Attorney General and in 1978 he won the governors elections and became the youngest state governor in the history of the United States. He was just 32 years old. During the governance Clinton focused on the support of the small business and educational programs. During the 11 years of Clinton’s governing the income of the state was significantly raised. It would be essential to note that Arkansas is considered to be one of the most retarded states in the whole country. His wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton took an active participation in the social life of the state. She was the one who dealt with children’s and family rights protection in Arkansas.
In 1980 in Clinton Family a daughter was born, - Chelsea.

Being a governor Clinton considered one of the core ideas availability of the high qualified education for every citizen of the state, despite the income and race. It should be noted that Clinton perfectly coped to this task. In 1986 – 1987 on the post of chairman at the Governors’ Association Clinton promoted his educational ideas on the country level. Since the time of Clinton’s governance, Arkansas is among the leaders on promotion educational programs and financing them.

3.2. Presidential Campaign 1992

On the 3rd of October 1991 Clinton set his candidacy on the post of the United States President. During the campaign candidate Clinton focused on the poor economical statement of the country after the 12 years of the Republican guidance, in particular George H. W. Bush. Huge national debt, budgeted deficit, increasing unemployment and high inflation, all these factors assisted Clinton’s Presidency Campaign, which actually turned attention of the masses to the poor economic conditions, occurred during Bush presidency. But it should be noted that George H.W. Bush was very strong candidate and he just won the Persian Gulf War against Iraq, which is also known as Operation Storm in the Desert and freed Kuwait. And actually the economical conditions were not as poor as Clinton’s team was trying to show. This made Bush very popular. In fact Clinton even did not have the decisive superiority according to the poll results. And in such a situation the Democrats were assisted by the independent candidate Ross Pero, which is also from Texas (the republicans often Blame him in Bush’s defeat at that elections). The result was the winning of Clinton-Gore pair. It should be noted that Clinton won in traditional Republican states and it was an outstanding event, which was not observed since the times of John F. Kennedy.

3.3. First Term of Presidency: Faults and Achievements

On January 20, 1993 inauguration of William Jefferson Clinton was held. During his inauguration speech Clinton was intended to reach the public showing them the necessity of the changes and the historical value of the generations’ shift within the government of the country and arriving of the new political generation in power, those who understand the new responsibility. He declared: “Our democracy must be not only the envy of the world but the engine of our own renewal. There is nothing wrong with America that cannot be cured by what is right with America” (Clinton Bill, 1993, p 1). It should be noted that the electors perfectly remembered his campaign promises: assistance to the unemployment decrease, provision of the reforms in the field of the healthcare, including the interests of the poor social layers and decrease the taxation of the middle class, increasing the same time taxation of the wealthy Americans and finally decrease of the military expenses on the country level.

The absence of experience in the politics on such level played a bad joke with Bill Clinton making the first steps of his Presidency. Long chaotic formation of the team was the first of them. The previous United States President from the Democratic Party Jimmy Carter gave in his authorities to Ronald Reagan in 1981 and since then the Democrats did not have any well organized and experienced team, which would be able to count the after-effects of his initiatives on the political level i.e. cooperation and work with the Congress and The Republican party.

Clinton’s lobby in order to fulfill the campaign promising ability openly homosexual men and women to serve in the military forces was strongly criticized from the left and actually failed. After confrontation to the Ministry of Defense and wide social discussion, the compromise variant significantly differed from the ideas suggested by Clinton.

The international politics was also marked by critically unfortunate project in Somali, initiated by United States and supported by the United Nations
Probably among the noticeable fails during the first steps was healthcare reform, which the same time was one of the most important issues, which Clinton stated for himself as the United States President. He appointed Hillary Clinton, who also did not have work experience on the federal level, the head of the operating committee of healthcare reform and without taking into account political after effects (Clinton promoted medical insurance to all the citizens in the U.S. and suggested to spread the expenses partially on the employers and manufacturers of the medicine) the President met strong opposition of manufactures, the lack of support in Congress, which was ready to corrections, but not to wide – ranging reform. After the Democrats failed at Congress elections in 1994, the realization of reform became impossible and was compressed. It should be noted that Clinton autobiographer, John Harris consider that “the program failed because of a lack of co-ordination within the White House” (Harris, 2006).

Clinton’s government supported the international project of birth decreasing, which was blocked by Vatican in UNO. Hence it should be noted that despite the fist problematic steps the economics of the United States was increasing outstandingly. The high tech sector was significantly enlarged and the unemployment was minimal.

But the same time Bill Clinton and his tolerant approach served perfectly for the United States of America and very soon the relations with problematic countries became better and stable. It is not surprising that the elections of 1996 were quite predictable – the winner was current President, - Bill Clinton

3.4. Second Term: Lewinski Scandal and Possibility of Impeachment

The second term of presidency was significantly impacted by the sexual scandal with Monica Lewinski and the possibility of President Impeachment. The intimate relations with Miss Lewinsky in 996 became the reason for blame the President in false evidence under the oath. It became the beginning of the President impeachment. The Scandal outrages in 1998, when the mass media learned the different peculiarities of Clinton and Lewinski relationships.
Impeachment of Bill Clinton was closely connected to the sexual scandal around the 42nd President of the United States and 25 years old internal Monica Lewinsky (Ross Brian, 1998). The procedure of Impeachment and investigation according to this scandalous case took place in 1998. Clinton was blamed in false evidence and preventing the justice; the whole situation reached to the procedure of voting in the House of Representatives.

Monica Lewinsky obtained a reasonable position according to her diploma in the White House in 1998. Communicating to the President of the United States she inclined President to the unregular sexual relations, which lasted since November 1995 till 1997 (she insists on the 9 cases of oral sex). Then she left the White House for Pentagon and ended her communication with the President. She told about her sexual relations with the President to Linda Tripp, who securely recorded their phone conversations. In January 1998 Kenneth Starr leaded the investigation. He was also known in the US for his investigations of other political scandals . First messages devoted to this case appeared first in Internet on the 17th of January 1998 and on the 21st of January in Washington Post. On the 26th of January President Clinton announced that he had no relations with Monica Lewinsky. The First Lady supported President in public during these heavy days and insisted on the fact that the whole story itself was a plot towards the President. On the 28th of July the same year Lewinsky announced on oath that she had had sexual relations with Bill Clinton, including oral sex (Starr Kenneth, 1998). On the 17th of August Clinton himself announced in the court that he had improper physical relations with Lewinsky. But before, during the trial of Pola Jones, he told that he had no sexual relations with Lewinsky. These
The Houses of Representative enumerating 100 senators had to carry out the sentence (guilty/not guilty) to start procedure of impeachment. The sentence should be carried out not by general majority, but qualified one– 2/3 should vote for or against. Senators could depose the President or let him stay in power. They could also imprison him and fine on great deal of money. They also could postpone resolution of the sentence until that time his Presidential term would end. The Senate even could submit a reproach. That was the form of penalty suggested by Democratic Party. But the Republicans insisted on the procedure of impeachment and following empowerment of the President. But 2/3rds of Americans and Bill Clinton himself did not want the empowerment of the President. The investigation according to Clinton’s case cost nearly 60 million dollars for the state. Political Scandals connected with Pola Jones and Monica Lewinsky, Impeachment threat, which seriously damaged country’s authority and the President himself did not actually crushed Bill Clinton. Bill Clinton actually won the trial and the whole situation. Some analysts consider that this situation was very significant and American Sate System Institutions going through the serious crisis and put in serious doubt the main principles of constitution, the basis of political building. Personally I think that this situation is demonstrating the decay in American Political system.

This story insignificantly decreased the rating of extremely popular Clinton, but after the defeat of Albert Gore on the 2000 elections, it turned out that Lewinski-Clinton Scandal became fatal for the Democratic party on that Presidency elections

3.5. The Results of Clinton’s Presidency

The Presidency of Bill Clinton positively impacted the economics of the US. The external debt was sharply decreased, the unemployment became insignificant and America became the leader in the IT industry (before Clinton, Japan obtained the leading position). Also his administration lobbied prohibition testing of nuclear weapons in the whole world. The absence of the USSR let the government of the United States to achieve enormous results: The fourth NATO increase, separation of Kosovo. It should be noted that during Clinton Presidency the US significantly decreased military intervention. The expectation of the masses dealing with technologies development were reached, hence the decrease of religious confessions expansion execrated by the masses was not reached.

Conclusion: Post-Presidential Work

During the recent years Clinton is an active social worker and an active member of different social, political and charitable organizations. After defeat of his wife on primaries, he actively supported Barack Obama and became special envoy for UN and Haiti. He actively participates in social activities and humanitarian programs, being one of the most noticeable figures in this area. It should be noted that Clinton family could be probably called the example of tolerance and forgiveness. Despite the Lewinsky scandal Bill and Hillary Clinton are together, supporting each other in every beginning: “No one understands me better and no one can make me laugh the way Bill does. Even after all these years, he is still the most interesting, energizing and fully alive person I have ever met” (Clinton Hillary, 2003, p. 75)

References:

1. Clinton Bill. My life. Knopf Publishing Group Random House: 2004
2. Clinton Bill. Bill Clinton First Address. Yale University Press: 1993
3. Clinton, Hillary. R. Living History. New York: Simon & Schuster: 2003
4. Harris, John F. The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House (1st ed.). Random House Trade Paperbacks:2006
5. Ross, Brian at White House on 'Stained Blue Dress' Day - Schules Reviewed by ABC Show Hillary May Have Been in the White House When the Fateful Act Was Committed. ABCNews. March 19, 1998
6. Kenneth Starr The Starr Report: The Findings of Independent Counsel Kenneth W. Starr on President Clinton and the Lewinsky Affair (1998). The U.S. Government Printing Office. 17.09.2010

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