Critical Thinking; Basic Concepts of Quantitative Reasoning; Hypothesis Formulation 2

Critical Thinking; Basic Concepts of Quantitative Reasoning; Hypothesis Formulation 2
There are a lot of areas of health and medicine that are of great interest for me. But the most I am interested in diseases that happen rather often, that are dangerous for the life and that don't have vivid reasons. Such diseases are diabetes, autism (especially child's), cancer. These topics are of great importance to humanity and medicine science is working hard in order to find drugs or ways of treatment of these diseases.

Autism is a heavy anomaly of mental development of children, characterized mainly by breaking contact with others, emotional coldness, perversion interests, and stereotyped activities. One of the defining and diagnostically important feature of the disease is the emergence of symptoms in the age of 2.5 years. Autism is rare, with 2-4 children from 10 000; boys suffer from it 3 times more often than girls. It is revealed in all social classes and in all parts of the world (Wehman 2009).

The causes of autism are unknown. Only a small percentage of cases, children with a diagnosis of autism are able to continue to live independently, and only 1-2 of 100 become full members of society. More than half of children with autism need hospitality; a great part of patients after many years spent in the hospital get the symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. In 25-30% of patients epilepsy appears. Most children remain disabled for the whole life. This disease is very cruel and dangerous; and there are a lot of facts that are unknown about it, that is why I feel interested in studding it more thoroughly (Kessick 2003).

The other disease that is of great interest for me is diabetes mellitus. It is a group of endocrine diseases, developing as a result of relative or absolute lack of the hormone insulin, or violation of its interaction with cells of the body, resulting in hyperglycemia develops - a persistent increase of glucose in blood. The disease is characterized by a chronic course and a violation of all types of metabolism.

In the past 30 years it was noticed a sharp increase of cases with diabetes, especially in industrialized countries where its prevalence is 5-6% and tends to further increase, especially in the age groups older than 40 years. Every 10-15 years the number of patients with diabetes is doubled. Calculations show that in the case of increasing life expectancy to 80 years, the number of patients with the diabetes type 2, will be more than 17% of the population (National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse 2003).

In the U.S., the total number of patients with diabetes in 1992 was 11,085,952, or 44.8 per 1000 of people. The prevalence of diabetes increases with age. If in the age group 0-17 years it is 1.2 per 1000 population, in the group 18-24 years - 8,9, in the group 25-34 years - 18,6, in the group 35-44 years - 31,5, but among those, who are aged 45-54 years, the incidence reaches 60.2, and among people 55-62 years old - 107,4, among 65-74 years olds - 166,8 and in the age group of 75 years and older - 143.3 per 1000 of population. (Couch 2009).

There are over 150 million people with diabetes in the world. Expert assessment of the prevalence of diabetes suggests that by 2010 there will be more than 230 million patients with diabetes in the world (Couch 2009).

Currently, the prognosis for patients with all types of diabetes is conditionally good. If they have properly administered treatment and compliance with diet, they will remain incapacitated. The progression of complications is significantly slowing or completely stopping. However, it should be noted that in most cases as a result of treatment the cause of the disease doesn’t disappear, and the therapy is just symptomatic.

The next important and dangerous health case is connected with cancer. It is a type of malignant tumor that develops from cells of epithelial tissue of various organs (skin, mucous membranes and many internal organs).

The incidence of malignant with tumors is growing continuously. Every year about 6 million new cases of malignant tumors are registered in the world. The highest incidence among males is marked in France (361 per 100 000 population), and among women in Brazil (283.4 per 100 000). (United States 2003). This is partly due to the ageing of the population. It should be noted that the majority of tumors were developed in patients, who are older than 50 years. The most frequently are affected the prostate gland and lungs in males and breast in women. Mortality from cancer is the world's second largest after cardio-vascular system mortality.

The prognosis for cancer patients depends on many factors: early detection of the tumor, its localization, stage of development, etc. The identification of cancer at early stages of development, usually leads to full recovery of the patient under the influence of adequate treatment (Rochfort 2003).

As it was written above, I am interested in studding such areas of health and medicine that are of great important for the humanity. Such disease as autism, cancer and diabetes are spread in all countries and millions of people suffer from them and die from them. These diseases need to be researched, because there is a lot of unknown in them.

Work cited:

Couch, Robert. Capital Health Evidence-based Practice Center, University of Alberta. (2008). Diabetes education for children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their families. P. 12.
Kessick, Rosemary. (2009). Autism and diet: what you need to know. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. P. 2.
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (U.S.). (2003). Diabetes prevention program. P. 3.
Rochfort, Christine. (2003). Cancer: an overview of cause and prevention. California Polytechnic State University. P. 14.
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies. (2003).Cancer research and prevention: hearing before a subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, second session, special hearing, June 4, 2002, Washington, DC. P. 7.
Wehman, Paul., Smith, Marcia Datlow., Schall, Carol. (2009) Autism and the transition to adulthood: success beyond the classroom. P. 6.

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