The Self Paper

The Self Paper
Self-concept is a system of representations of an individual about himself, and about the realization of a part of the individual, his self-image. Despite the resistance, self-concept is not static, but dynamic education. The formation of self-concept is influenced by a complex of factors, among which the most important are contacts with "significant others", in essence defining the representation of himself. The subject of introspection and self-esteem of individuals may, in particular, become his body and his skills, his social relations and other personal expressions. The behavior is based on the self-concept and constructs individual’s interaction with others and with himself. Therefore, the formation of adequate self-concept as self-consciousness in general, is essential for educating the conscious member of society.

The notion of "self-concept" was born in 1950 in line with the phenomenological, humanistic psychology, whose representatives A. Maslow and C. Rogers, in contrast to the behaviorists, have sought to review the integrity of the human self as a fundamental factor in behavior and development of a personality. Often the term is used as a synonym for “consciousness”, but unlike the last “self-concept” less than neutral, including a self-evaluative aspect. Self-concept, in essence, determines not just what an individual represents, but also what he thinks of himself when his career started and what development opportunities will occur in the future.

Components of self-concept. Cognitive components mean the representation of an individual of himself, a set of characteristics, which, as he thinks he has. Evaluation is how the individual evaluates these characteristics as apply them. Behavior - is how a person actually behaves. Usually a person believes that he has certain characteristics. These characteristics can be deduced or reduced to a single current moment of his life. Moreover, in reality this man is objectively might not be strong. A set of beliefs about yourself have a cognitive component of self-concept. These beliefs may have different significance for the individual. It can be considered, for example, that he was primarily a bold and strong only in tenth place. This hierarchy is not constant and can vary depending on the context or over time. The combination of value and performance at a given moment is largely caused by the installation of the individual, his expectations for himself. Among other things, the cognitive component of self-concept is represented in the mind of the individual in the form of social roles and statuses.
The individual not only believes that it has certain characteristics, but also a certain way to evaluate them if he belongs to them. He may like or dislike it, for example, being strong. An important role in the formation of this assessment is: comparing of representations of themselves with the "ideal ego"; relation of representations of themselves with social expectations; evaluating the effectiveness of its activities from the perspective of their identity. As a fact, we cannot ignore how we actually conduct ourselves. This "objective" part is the behavioral component of self-concept.

Considering the development of the self concept, infants initially did not distinguish between themselves and the world around us. As growth begins to develop my body, knowledge comes with the understanding of non-identity of internal and external worlds. Later, young children begin to compare themselves with their parents, peers and relatives, finding the differences. By middle childhood they already have their knowledge of themselves extended so far that is includes a system of evaluations of their own qualities.

Adolescents have noticeable concern how they are perceived by others. It is this way until their intelligence reaches a level of development, which allows them to think about the fact that an outside world is as it is and how it should be.

Throughout adulthood, we have the concept of rights while seeking to maintain continuity and changing. Major life events are a change of work, marriage, birth of children and grandchildren, divorce, job loss, war, personal tragedy – all of them lead us to revise the attitude. Self-concept is a relatively stable, more or less conscious, and it is experienced as a unique system of ideas about the individual self, and on its base interaction with other people is being built. Self-concept is coherence, although not without internal contradictions, the image of self, acting as a plant in relation to himself and comprising components: the cognitive - the image of their qualities, abilities, physical appearance, social significance, etc.; emotional - self-esteem, self-love, self-abasement, etc.; estimation-willed, the desire to improve self-esteem, gain respect, etc.

The relationship between the self and emotion depends on what a person thinks about himself, how he perceives the others, which character he has and how close to the heart he takes everything that happens around him. All these factors influence an individual’s self-esteem. The relationship between the self and behavior is determined considering the way a person lives, the way he feels about things, what he thinks and what his limits are. This relationship affects an individual’s self-presentation, as what a person thinks- he them implements in his life, his vision of situations, his understanding of a proper behavior.
Self-concept is also a precondition and a consequence of social interaction, which is determined by social experience. Its components: the real self (image of himself in the present tense), the ideal self, the dynamic self (the way in which the subject intends to be), I'm fantastic (for example, it is how the subject would like to be, even if it obviously was not possible, the emotional attitude to these ideas and beliefs about yourself, the corresponding behavioral response), etc.
In general, self-concept is an important structural element of the psychological profile of the person, in communication and activities it is an ideal representation of an individual in itself, as in the others. Formation of self-concept, being ultimately caused by a wide socio-cultural context, arises in the circumstances of the exchange activities between people in which the subject “looks like a mirror in the other person”. As a fact, formation of the adequate self-concept, and above all self-consciousness are one of the important conditions for bringing a conscious member of society. "Self concept" is a manifestation of self-awareness, dynamic system of human representations of themselves. It is shaped by experience of every individual. This system is the basis of the higher self of a person, upon which it builds its relations with its surrounding world.

Self-consciousness in the psychological literature is regarded as a complex family structure formation in the individual psyche and image of the "self". The image of the "self" is a product of consciousness, awareness and expression that is called human evaluation itself as a subject of practical and theoretical activities, ideals and beliefs that motivate its activity. The kinds of images of "self" are: the social "self", spiritual "self", physical "self", intimate "self", family "self", etc. And also there are real "self" and unreal "self", as well as present, future, fantasy, etc. Unlike self-image, the "self" is also conscious of components containing unknown "self" at the level of being and knowledge. The main function of the image of the "self" is the integrity, individual and personal nature of his subjective achieve harmony. The self concept is the concept that studies the sciences of a person and society.
According to its contents, the self concept could be positive, negative or ambivalent.

A. Maslow sees inconsistencies in the internal contradiction of the real level of individual self-actualization and its possible level. In the conceptions of self identity as a desire to represent yourself in the best way, Maslow describes the requirements which an individual must meet. As a fact, Rogers emphasizes the human capacity for personal self-improvement. The central concept of his theory is the notion of “self” because every person asks the question: Who am I? What can I do to become who I want to be? The image of "self" is in personal experience. So, the self - the concept is an appreciable and cognitive system. When an individual is capable of loving and being creative, and he loves himself only if he loves others, then he does not love. Thus, the image of "self" acts as a regulator of human interpersonal relations.

The modern psychological research highlights the role of the image of “self” as a generalized mechanism of self-identity that argues about this image of “self”, which provides identification, personal responsibility and creates a sense of social engagement. Individuals with different self - concept perceive the world in different ways. Achievement, motivation and domination for a person are the most important regulators of the self concept development.


Self-Concept (2001). Retrieved 17 September 2010, from
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem (2005). Retrieved 17 September 2010, from

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