Homosexuality

Homosexuality
The question of homosexuality is one of the most contradictory social questions. It should be noted that homosexuality as a social event is noted from the Ancient times and since then the interest of the society and the science. But if in Ancient times homosexual contacts were allowed and did not differ from the heterosexual (especially socially) than in the present day homosexuals meet severe social critics and got to struggle their rights. Hence the interest of science and the society of all the countries to homosexuals is still very high. It goes without saying that contemporary science investigates it in different fields, but many questions are still left without an answer. For a long time homosexuality was considered to be some kind of mental disorder, but the activists of gay and lesbian communities proved that this scientific conclusion does not make a sense. It should be noted that one of the most discussed question dealing with homosexuality in recent years is the question whether homosexuality is genetic or not: “On July 15, 1993 National Public Radio (NPR) made a dramatic announcement on stations across the country: Was a team of scientists at the National Institutes of Health on the trail of a gene that causes homosexuality? Their report would be published the next day in Science, one of the two most prestigious scientific research journals in the world” (Satinover, 1994, p. 3).

It goes without saying that the question attracted huge social attention and caused quite controversial attitude from the different social layers. It should be noted that in the whole world the attitude to homosexuals and homosexual marriages and families is rather negative than positive and the discussion raised this question again: “The discussion that followed explained for the listening public the implications of these findings for social attitudes toward homosexuality and for public policy concerning it. Science was on the verge of proving what many had long argued: that homosexuality in innate, genetic and therefore unchangeable—a normal and commonplace variant of human nature. In the light of these findings, surely only the bigoted or ignorant could condemn it in any way” (Satinover, 1994, p. 3). Ryan Johnson, American scientist and investigator, is the one who devoted to the subject his investigatory work. He noted in his investigations (2003) that the question of human sexuality causes scientific interest since the 19th century and Charles Darwin recognized the contradiction of this question and considered that there is no direct answer on it: “… we do not even in the least know the final cause of sexuality. The whole subject is hidden in darkness” (Johnson, 2003). Hence American Psychological Association is supporting pretty different point of view, determining that homosexuality is not a choice: “Although the APA currently states that sexual orientation is not a choice, rather that "...it emerges from most people in early adolescence with no prior sexual experience", social theorists argue that an individual's upbringing can directly influence this [sexual orientation]. Also tied in with many of these debates is the morality of homosexuality. But the purpose of this examination is not to prove whether or not homosexuality is right or wrong, but rather to establish a thorough understanding of the biological and social theories surrounding the cause of homosexuality” (Johnson, 2003).

And psychologists are not the single representatives of scientific world who seek the answer on this question. The biological debate raised the question since the early 1930-s and American biologists were the pioneers. Alfred Kinsey was the one who wanted to answer the following questions: “Kinsey had two goals for his tests: 1) to find out how many adult males engaged in homosexual behavior, and 2) to suggest theories about it came to be” (Thompson and Devine, 1995). The results provide by doctor Kinsey at the University of Indiana were really amazing for that period: “When asked if they had engaged in homosexual sexual relations, a large percent of the population tested answered "no", however when asked if they had engaged in same-sex sexual relations, the percentage answering "yes" nearly doubled. The experiment yielded that 30% of males had experienced at least orgasm in a homosexual act. The results of this research became the widely popularized Kinsey Scale of Sexuality. This scale rates all individuals on a spectrum of sexuality, ranging from 100% heterosexual to 100% homosexual, and everything in between. While establishing that as many as 10% of adult males reported having sexual relations with a same-sex partner, this research did little more than to put the word homosexual into common language” (Johnson, 2003).

It should be noted that scientific world studied differently homosexuality, but to find the direct answer whether homosexuality is genetic or not turned out to be very hard. Psychoanalytic scientists studying behaviorism, examined precisely family roles, considering them being very important in development of homosexuality in children: “Most psychoanalytic theories, however, stress the role of parental and family dynamics, not the society as a whole. Behaviorists believe that some sexual and gender identification differences result from roles imposed by family and friends upon children, such as the masculine and the feminine stereotypes. Problems with this are there is no evidence, social or biological, to support that homosexual children were raised differently than were the heterosexual children. Also, with reinforcement of gender identification norms, one would be led to logically deduce that all of the stereotype reinforcement would ensure a heterosexual outcome” (Johnson, 2003).

David Halperin and Jean Foucault, who are the predominant theorists of homosexuality, consider that people do not become homosexual, they are made homosexual and we can do nothing with it. The ideas suggested by this social scientists concentrate on the fact that homosexuality is essential and natural event that occur since the very beginning of the humanity: “Jean Foucault argues, ‘...homosexuality became because we made it so’. Foucault says that the category of homosexuality itself was only created a mere one hundred years ago, after a German neologism coined some twenty years later. Foucault gives root to the social derivation of homosexuality believing that homosexuality appeared as one of the forms of sexuality, only after it was transposed from the practice of sodomy into a kind of interior androgyny, a hermaphrodism of the soul” (Thorp, 1992).

Despite the constant argument the scientist did not came to the direct answer on the question whether homosexuality is genetic or not. The question is still raised in the scientific rows and the best investigators are intended to find an answer of this phenomenon. So called “elusive gene of homosexuality” is still not discovered, but some investigators consider that the anatomy would answer the question dealing with the origins of homosexuality: “Simon LeVay did reveal to us that anatomy is the key to understanding the difference in sexual orientation. Perhaps there is no one answer, that sexual orientation, whether homosexual or heterosexual; gay, straight, lesbian, or bisexual, all are a cause of a complex interaction between environmental, cognitive, and anatomical factors, shaping the individual at an early age” (Johnson, 2003). The understanding of the homosexuality nature would help us to understand us the difficulty of the situation which occur with homosexuals in the present day world; their intention to create families and grow up children. It goes without saying that the present day answer on the question is homosexuality genetic is direct no. Now it is still unproved and there is no evident data that would persuade the scientists in existence of this gene.

References

Johnson R. D. (April 30, 2003). Homosexuality: Nature or Nurture. AllPsych Journal
Satinover J. (1994). Is Homosexuality Genetic? The Gay Gene? The Journal of Human Sexuality. pp. 3-10. Lewis and Stanley
Thompson and Devine. (May, 1995). Homosexuality: biologically or environmentally constructed. Department of Psychology, University of Miami
Thorp J. (1992).The Social Construction of Homosexuality. Phoenix 46.1 p. 54-65

Homosexuality 8 of 10 on the basis of 4027 Review.